Leonardo’s Management assesses the Group’s performance and that of its business segments based on a number of indicators that are not envisaged by the IFRSs. Specifically, EBITA is used as the primary indicator of profitability, since it allows us to analyse the Group’s marginality by eliminating the impacts of the volatility associated with non-recurring items or items unrelated to ordinary operations.
As required by CESR/05-178b Recommendation, below is a description of the components of each of these indicators:
- New orders: this includes contracts acquired during the period that satisfy the contractual requirements for being recorded in the order book.
- Order backlog: this figure is the sum of the order backlog for the preceding period and new orders, less revenues during the reference period.
- EBITDA: this is given by EBITA, as defined below, before amortisation, depreciation and impairment losses (net of those relating to goodwill or classified among “non-recurring costs”).
- EBITDA margin: it is calculated as the ratio between EBITDA and revenues.
- EBITA: it is arrived at by eliminating from EBIT, as defined below, the following items:
- any impairment in goodwill;
- amortisation and impairment, if any, of the portion of the purchase price allocated to intangible assets as part of business combinations, as required by IFRS 3;
- restructuring costs that are a part of defined and significant plans. This item includes personnel costs as well as any and all other costs deriving from the reorganisation (e.g. impairment of assets, costs for the closure of sites, relocation costs, etc.);
- other exceptional costs or income, i.e. connected to particularly significant events that are not related to the ordinary performance of the business.
EBITA is then used to calculate Return on Sales (ROS) and Return on Investment (ROI).
A reconciliation of Income before tax and financial expense, EBIT and EBITA is shown below (the reconciliation by segment is reported in Note 9):
|Income before tax and financial expenses||687||623|
|Equity-accounted strategic JVs||295||261|
|Amortisation of intangible assets acquired as part of business combinations||97||98|
Non-recurring costs are mainly related to estimated legal expenses for certain contracts that are subject to ongoing disputes, as well as write-downs which reflect management’s estimates in respect of the Group’s exposure in countries considered at risk. Restructuring costs refer to ongoing proceedings chiefly relating to Electronics, Defence and Security Systems and Aeronautics.
- Return on Sales (ROS): this is calculated as the ratio of EBITA to revenue.
- EBIT: this is obtained by adding to EBIT (defined as earnings before “financial income and expense”, “share of profits (losses) of equity-accounted investees”, “income taxes” and “result from discontinued operations”) the Group’s share of profit in the results of its strategic Joint Ventures (ATR, MBDA, Thales Alenia Space and Telespazio), reported in the “share of profits (losses) of equity-accounted investees”.
- Net result before extraordinary transactions: this is the Net Result before the result from discontinued operations and the effects of the extraordinary transactions (key acquisitions and disposals). Below is the reconciliation:
|Net result of discontinued operations||-||(258)|
|Effect on extraordinary transactions||38||(16)|
|Net result before extraordinary transactions||545||253|
- Group net debt: this includes cash, financial receivables and current securities, net of (current and non-current) loans and borrowings and of the fair value of derivatives covering financial debt items, as well as the main non-current receivables. In particular, at 31 December 2016 the Group Net Debt included the financial receivable (backed by bank guarantees) from SuperJet – previously recorded within current receivables – which will be repaid in 4 years based on the arrangements for the rescheduling of the Group’s participation in this programme (a transaction described in the section on “Industrial and Financial Transactions”). This indicator also includes the measurement of the residual interest in Ansaldo Energia in consideration – and assuming the exercise as well as in light of the creditworthiness of the other party – of the put & call rights based on which this amount will be paid by Fondo Strategico Italiano to Leonardo. Until 2015 this amount was classified, from an accounting perspective, under non-current assets; starting from 2016 this figure has been classified among current assets considering that the expiry date is nearing. The reconciliation with the net financial position required by the Consob communication no. DEM/6064293 of 28 July 2006 is reported in Note 19 to the consolidated financial statements.
- Free Operating Cash Flow (FOCF): this is the sum of the cash flows generated by (used in) operating activities (excluding the changes in the Group Net Debt), the cash flows generated by (used in) ordinary investing activities (investment and divestment of intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, and equity investments, net of cash flows from the purchase or sale of equity investments that, due to their nature or significance, are considered “strategic investments”) and dividends. The calculation of FOCF is presented in the reclassified statement of cash flows shown in the section “Group results and financial position”.
- Return on Investments (ROI): this is calculated as the ratio of EBITA to the average net capital invested in the two comparative periods.
- Return on Equity (ROE): this is calculated as the ratio of the net result before extraordinary transactions for the financial period to the average value of equity in the two comparative periods.
- Workforce: the number of employees recorded in the register on the last day of the period.
- Funds From Operations (FFO): this is cash flow generated by (used in) operating activities net of changes in working capital and the repayment of debts under Law 808/1998, included within “Cash flow from ordinary investing activities” in the reclassified statement of cash flows. The FFO also includes dividends received.
- Research and Development costs: the Group classifies under R&D all internal and external costs incurred relating to projects aimed at obtaining or employing new technologies, knowledge, materials, products and processes. The item includes:
- development costs capitalised even if covered by grants;
- research costs, whose activity is at a stage at which it cannot be demonstrated that the activity will generate future economic benefits, or development costs for which the accounting requirements for capitalisation do not obtain, are expensed as incurred;
- research and development costs reimbursed by the customer as part of existing contracts (which fall under the scope of work in progress from an accounting viewpoint).
- Net interest: this is calculated as the sum of the items “Interest”, “Premiums (paid) received on IRSs” and “Commissions on borrowings” (see the Note on “Financial income and expense” of the consolidated financial statements”);
- Change in working capital: this is equal to the change in trade receivables/payables, contract work in progress and progress payments and advances from customers and inventories (in 2015 excluded changes relating to the Fyra contract held by AnsaldoBreda included among loans and borrowings). The reconciliation is as follows:
|Change in trade receivables/payables, work in progress/progress payments and advances from customers and inventories||(229)||(637)|
|Payments on Fyra contract||-||41|
|Change in working capital||(229)||(596)|
Reconciliation table between reclassified income statement and statement of financial position presented in the Management Report and income statements and statement of financial position are as follows:
|€ millions||Scheme||PPA |
|Purchase and personnel expenses||(10,549)||43||24||(10,396)|
|Other operating income||742|
|Other operating expenses||(730)|
|Other net operating income/(expenses)||12||59||21||6|
|Equity-accounted strategic JVs||295||295|
|Amortisation, depreciation and impairment losses||(778)||97||26||(655)|
|Amortisation of intangible assets acquired as part of business combinations||(97)||(97)|
|Share of profits/(losses) of equity-accounted investees||300|
|Net financial income/(expense)||(22)||(295)||38||(279)|
|Net result before extraordinary transactions||545|
|Profit/(Loss) from discontinued operations||-||(38)||(38)|
|€ millions||Scheme||Financial |
|FV Ansaldo Energia||Reclassified|
|Net working capital||(1.542)|
|Equity attributable to Owners of the Parent||4,357||4,357|
|Equity attributable to non-controlling interests||16||16|
|Group net debt||(2,330)||5,278||35||(138)||2,845|
|Non-current assets held for sale||14||14|