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27. Purchases and personnel expenses

Purchase of materials from third parties3,8694,505
Change in inventories of raw materials228115
Costs for purchases from related parties (Note 34)6352
Services rendered by third parties3,1503,868
Costs of rents and operating leases105104
Software fees1912
Rental fees2028
Services rendered by related parties (Note 34)108138
Wages and salaries2,3912,505
Social security contributions493511
Costs related to defined-contribution plans108110
Costs related to severance pay provisionand other defined-benefit plans (Note 21)4220
Employee disputes27
Restructuring costs - net4381
Other personnel expenses7966
Personnel expenses3,1583,300
Change in finished goods, work in progress and semi-finished products170(87)
Internal work capitalised(349)(435)
Total purchases and personnel expenses10,54911,605

In terms of personnel expense, this item decreased by €mil. 142 due to the impact related to the change in the average workforce and to the decrease in restructuring costs.

Restructuring costs equal to €mil. 43 (€mil. 81 in 2015) mainly related to: Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (€mil. 31), Aeronautics (€mil. 8) and Helicopters (€mil. 4) for costs incurred and provisions allocated against on-going reorganisation activities.

The average workforce at 31 December 2016 significantly decreased (no.1,288 units) in comparison with 31 December 2015 mainly due to the Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (no. 492 units of which no. 270 units in Italy), Helicopters (no. 352 units, of which no. 106 units in Italy) and Aeronautics (no. 328 units) sectors, in addition to the change deriving from the sale of Fata (no. 210 units).

The decrease, in addition to the component related to the sale of the Fata Group (no. 207 units), was also due to the streamlining and efficiency improvement processes, mainly attributable to the Helicopters (no. 638 units, of which no. 178 units in Italy) and Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (no. 615 units, of which no. 320 units in Italy).

In particular, the reduction on the foreign component is about 51% of the total decrease.

 Average WorkforceTotal Workforce
 31 December 201631 December 2015Change31 December 201631 December 2015Change
Senior managers (*)1,1431,276(133)1,1341,231(97)
Middle managers5,3725,359135,3015,471(170)
Clerical employees26,68027,331(651)26,91527,587(672)
Manual labourers (**)12,61413,131(517)12,28112,867(586)

(*) Includes pilots.
(**) Includes senior manual labourers.