|Purchase of materials from third parties||3,869||4,505|
|Change in inventories of raw materials||228||115|
|Costs for purchases from related parties (Note 34)||63||52|
|Services rendered by third parties||3,150||3,868|
|Costs of rents and operating leases||105||104|
|Services rendered by related parties (Note 34)||108||138|
|Wages and salaries||2,391||2,505|
|Social security contributions||493||511|
|Costs related to defined-contribution plans||108||110|
|Costs related to severance pay provisionand other defined-benefit plans (Note 21)||42||20|
|Restructuring costs - net||43||81|
|Other personnel expenses||79||66|
|Change in finished goods, work in progress and semi-finished products||170||(87)|
|Internal work capitalised||(349)||(435)|
|Total purchases and personnel expenses||10,549||11,605|
In terms of personnel expense, this item decreased by €mil. 142 due to the impact related to the change in the average workforce and to the decrease in restructuring costs.
Restructuring costs equal to €mil. 43 (€mil. 81 in 2015) mainly related to: Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (€mil. 31), Aeronautics (€mil. 8) and Helicopters (€mil. 4) for costs incurred and provisions allocated against on-going reorganisation activities.
The average workforce at 31 December 2016 significantly decreased (no.1,288 units) in comparison with 31 December 2015 mainly due to the Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (no. 492 units of which no. 270 units in Italy), Helicopters (no. 352 units, of which no. 106 units in Italy) and Aeronautics (no. 328 units) sectors, in addition to the change deriving from the sale of Fata (no. 210 units).
The decrease, in addition to the component related to the sale of the Fata Group (no. 207 units), was also due to the streamlining and efficiency improvement processes, mainly attributable to the Helicopters (no. 638 units, of which no. 178 units in Italy) and Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (no. 615 units, of which no. 320 units in Italy).
In particular, the reduction on the foreign component is about 51% of the total decrease.
|Average Workforce||Total Workforce|
|31 December 2016||31 December 2015||Change||31 December 2016||31 December 2015||Change|
|Senior managers (*)||1,143||1,276||(133)||1,134||1,231||(97)|
|Manual labourers (**)||12,614||13,131||(517)||12,281||12,867||(586)|
(*) Includes pilots.
(**) Includes senior manual labourers.