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27. Purchase and personnel expense

Purchase of materials from third parties2,185-
Change in inventories of raw materials177-
Costs for purchases from related parties (Note 32)470-
Services rendered by third parties1,9139
Costs of rents and operating leases1205
Software fees21-
Rental fees9-
Services rendered by related parties (Note 32)44256
Wages and salaries1,31543
Social security contributions38210
Costs related to defined-contribution plans872
Employee disputes35
Restructuring costs - net143
Other personnel expenses net of cost recovery10(11)
Personnel expenses1,81152
Change in finished goods, work in progress and semi-finished products143-
Internal work capitalised(298)-
Total purchases and personnel expenses6,997122

Restructuring costs (€mil. 14 in 2016) mainly refer to the Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (€mil. 5), and Aeronautics (€mil. 8) divisions, as a result of the reorganisation underway.

The average workforce, as a result of the abovementioned mergers and acquisitions, amounts to no. 27,124 units; the average workforce compared with the pro-forma data at 31 December 2015 significantly decreased (no. 650 units) mainly attributable to the Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (no. 273 units), Aeronautics (no. 290 units) and Helicopters (no. 106 units) sectors.

The figure of total workforce at 31 December 2016, compared to the pro-forma data at 31 December 2015 decreased by no. 586 units as a result of the streamlining and efficiency improvement processes mainly in the Electronics, Defence and Security Systems (no. 311 units) and Helicopters (no. 178 units) sectors. The figure related to the average workforce, unlike that of the total workforce, is affected by the presence of part-time employees, personnel that took extended leave, redundant staff and employees with solidarity contracts.

The workforce breakdown is as follows:

 Average WorkforceTotal Workforce
 31 December 201631 December 2015Change31 December 201631 December 2015Change
Senior managers (*)7068362370778629
Middle managers3,178853,0933,153893,064
Clerical employees16,36810616,26216,79911216,687
Manual labourers (**)6,872-6,8726,924-6,924

(*) Includes pilots.
(**)Includes senior manual labours.